Logical Fallacies are when reasoning goes bad. Or, more formally said: A fallacy is a mistake in reasoning which can, yet doesn't have to, lead to a false conclusion.
Let's divide the fallacies of reasoning into two groups:
- "Classical" logical fallacies
- Rhetorical tricks
Example for a classical logical fallacy:
Some women are blonds.
All blonds have long hair.
All woman have long hair.
Example for a fallacy as a rhetorical trick:
Mr M. says, he has seen a UFO.
But Mr M. cannot even properly read and write.
Ergo: Mr M. supposedly lies.